number of technical manuals have been produced by Sabita, covering
the selection, handling and use of bituminous materials in a wide range
of applications. These manuals are supplied at a nominal charge to
Sabita members. To the wider public, the manuals are available at a higher
cost to cover the printing, distribution and administration costs. Prices
are inclusive of VAT, but excludes handling and postage outside of the Republic
of South Africa.
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1: Construction of bitumen rubber seals
Keywords: bitumen modified construction
Provides recommendations on materials and methods of construction for
surface treatments in which bitumen rubber is used, including material
selection and the preparations and properties of bitumen rubber blends,
and their handling and storage during construction.
2: Bituminous products for road construction and maintenance
Keywords: bitumen manufacture application
Bituminous products for road construction and maintenance: An introduction
to bituminous products used in road construction and maintenance in
southern Africa, including their origin, manufacture, composition, application
and applicable test methods
5: Guidelines for the manufacture and construction of hot-mix
Keywords: hot-mix asphalt manufacture construction
Covers correct techniques, procedures and plant requirements employed
in the control of component materials, mixing, storage, transport, paving
and compaction of all types of hot mix asphalt currently in use in southern
7: SuperSurf – Economic warrants for surfacing roads
Keywords: economics surface treatment
The package has been developed using Excel spreadsheets as a simple
mechanism for carrying out cost comparisons between maintaining an existing
unpaved road and improving it by using various upgrading options. The
improvements generally relate to low-cost seals on in situ or local
materials, but also include dust-palliative options to allow direct
cost comparisons. A CD containing the SuperSurf programme is included
in the package.
8: Guidelines for the safe and responsible handling of bituminous
Keywords: bitumen handling safety
This manual has been extensively revised and has drawn on the most up-to-date
information, knowledge and experience available from various national
and international sources. The content has been updated in accordance
with current legislation and extended to incorporate international best
practice in respect of work safety and health, as well as environmental
10: Appropriate standards for bituminous surfacings
Keywords: economics standards application
This manual covers the choice of appropriate bituminous surfacings for
low volume roads, analysing various conditions and performance requirements.
Easy to use graphs are provided to assist in the choice of bitumen or
gravel surfacings, and these have been developed from economic and financial
cost analysis. A method is provided to determine the life-cycle costs
of alternative surfacing choices. Incorporates discontinued Sabita Manual 9.
11: Labour enhanced construction for bituminous surfacings
Keywords: labour intensive construction
A guideline on the choice of bituminous surfacings for labour enhanced
construction, criteria for selecting the surfacing to meet the objectives
of job creation, to maximise the labour component, or to transfer skills.
Discussion includes social issues, feasibility, organisation of contracts,
productivity and implementation.
12: Methods and procedures – Labour enhanced construction for
Keywords: labour intensive construction
A complement to Manual 11 (see above), this publication is intended
for use by contractors’ staff in the planning of labour enhanced construction
and in the training of workers. Activities described include, inter
alia, preparation of the basecourse surface, spreading of aggregates,
mixing and application of slurry and compaction. The maintenance section
covers base and surface repair, pothole and edge repairs, crack sealing,
slurry seals and cold asphalt preparation.
13: LAMBS – the design and use of large aggregate mixes for
Keywords: hot-mix asphalt design application
The result of Sabita’s research into the design and performance of Heavy
Duty Asphalt Pavements (HDAPs), this manual examines general considerations
in the design of LAMBS, provides a detailed description of mix design
methods and guidelines on the interpretation of test results, constructibility
and quality control, cost considerations and a case study.
17 Porous asphalt mixes – design and use
Keywords: hot-mix asphalt design noise
Porous asphalt mixes – design and use: Guidelines on the design of porous
asphalt, mix design method and interpretation of test results, the constructability,
quality control and maintenance of porous asphalt, a practical illustration
of the mix design method through a case study, and an overview of performance
under accelerated trafficking.
18 Appropriate standards for the use of sand asphalt
Keywords: sand asphalt standards
Covers the mix ingredients of sand asphalt and sand selection criteria,
looks at manufacture, construction, performance, applications and specifications,
and analyses test methods, cost effectiveness and quality control.
construction of bitumen rubber asphalt wearing courses
19 Guidelines for the design, manufacture and construction
of bitumen rubber asphalt wearing courses
Keywords: bitumen modified wearing course standards
The guidelines cover the design, manufacture, handling and construction
of bitumen rubber asphalt. It deals primarily with those aspects of
hot mix asphalt that are specific to bitumen rubber asphalt and should
be read in conjunction with Sabita Manual 5 to obtain a comprehensive
perspective of the processes involved.
20 Sealing of active cracks in road pavements
Keywords: cracking maintenance
With specific emphasis on modified bituminous binders, this draft technical
guideline provides practitioners with recommendations for the treatment
of active cracks in road pavements. While no design methods are recommended
or described, the recommendations given serve to add to the existing
design methods, especially those for surfacing seals. Topics include
crack types, visual surveys on cracked pavements, crack movements, methods
of sealing individual cracks, surfacing seals using modified binders
and some cost considerations.
22 Hot-mix paving in adverse weather
Keywords: hot-mix asphalt construction compaction
Most current specifications do not adequately deal with the complexity
of laying hot-mix asphalt in adverse weather conditions. This guideline
examines major areas of risk and concern when hot-mix paving in rain,
wind and low temperatures. Recommendations are provided on procedures
to promote efficiency and reduce risk without compromising a sound end
result, and on prime, tack and bitumen mixing temperatures, managing
the effects of rain, minimum base, air and lay-down temperatures, compaction
management and techniques for assessing overall risk.
23: Code of Practice – Loading bitumen at refineries
Keywords: bitumen loading refinery
The transportation of dangerous goods by road is governed by a number
of statutory requirements. Many of these however are written in very
wide and generic terms and compliance with the standards is poorly enforced.
It is the aim of the Code of Practice that loading operations at refineries
take place in compliance with all statutory and industry-specific requirements.
This Code of Practice is available only in CD format.
24 User guide for the design of hot mix asphalt
Keywords: hot-mix asphalt design application
Developed to assist the design of hot mix layers to incorporate the
principles and recommendations embodied in the Interim guidelines for
the design of hot mix asphalt in South Africa (IGHMA), which is currently
being validated through a series of projects scheduled for completion
in 2010. The guide is not a replacement of the IGHMA rather it should
be considered a support document underlining some of the content, pointing
out pitfalls or gaps and referring to supplementary materials to ensure
off-loading and storage of bitumen and bituminous products
25 Code of Practice: Transportation, off-loading and storage of bitumen and bituminous products
Keywords: bitumen handling transportation
Developed to ensure the quality of bituminous binders during the handling
of the product as a raw material, i.e. before use in the final product
and includes loading, transportation, offloading, testing and sampling
practices. These handling activities generally occur when penetration
or cutback bitumen is transported from the refinery to a construction
site or asphalt plant or depot or binder factory fur further processing
and when modified binders or bitumen emulsions are transported from
the factory to the construction site, asphalt plant or depot.
26 Interim guidelines for primes and stone and precoating fluids
Keywords: prime precoat bituminous
Although the use of coal tar for priming granular bases and precoating
surfacing aggregates has been common practice in South Africa, global
best practice now dictates the discontinuation of these binders for
reasons of protecting worker health and environmental conservation.
The purpose of this guideline is to assist road authorities with the
selection of proven alternative products and processes that have been
used successfully. While coal tar has been used in a variety of road
construction applications over many decades, this document focuses only
on priming granular bases and precoating surfacing stone.
27Guideline for thin layer hot mix asphalt wearing courses
of residential streets.
Keywords: asphalt surfacing thin layers
The purpose of this manual is to present a set of general guidelines
to assist clients, consultants, paving contractors and asphalt manufacturers
to design, construct and manage the quality of thin hot mix asphalt
wearing course layers on roads carrying light (predominantly passenger
car) traffic, mostly in residential areas.
28: Best practice for the design and construction of slurry
Keywords: slurry seals design construction
This Manual has been prepared to provide practitioners with information
and guidelines to select the appropriate type of slurry for specific
applications and to assist in the design and construction of slurry
mixes to ensure good performance. Different methods of slurry design
have been developed in South Africa to determine the appropriate binder
content for specific materials and purposes, each providing reasonable
end products. However, as different test methods are applied, interpretation
of the results has become difficult, requiring experience to select
the best options for specific solutions. Although information for selection
and construction of microsurfacings is provided, the design thereof
is considered highly specialized and there not covered to the same detail
as conventional slurries.
29: Guide to the safe use of solvents in a bituminous products
Keywords: solvents safety HSE bituminous laboratory
The aim of this guide is to reduce exposure of workers to potentially
harmful substances and to ensure the responsible storage and disposal
of solvents, as incorrect disposal of solvents could have disastrous
consequences. This guide is available only in CD format.
Keywords: selection bituminous binders
This user guide has been compiled to facilitate the correct selection and use of bituminous binders for road construction and covers the role and function of bitumen in road layers or applications, the types and grades available in South Africa, standard specifications and technical requirements, selection criteria for a wide range of applications and a brief description of availability and packaging. This guide is available only in CD format.
31: Guidelines for calibrating a binder distributor and ensuring
Keywords: binder distributor calibration performance
This guideline sets out procedures to ensure the proper functioning
of a binder distributor capable to deliver the required uniform application
of binder during construction of bituminous seals and other spray applications.
The calibration of binder distributors as well as on-site procedures
to ensure operation within calibration limits are covered. In CD format only.
32: Best practice guideline for warm mix asphalt
Keywords: warm mix asphalt
This document presents best practice guidelines for the production and construction of WMA. WMA has environmental, occupational, health and safety, economic and engineering benefits and its use seems set to expand significantly over the next few years. In CD format only.